Tajikistan on Afghanistan’s Heroin Highway
Tajikistan: On Afghanistan’s Heroin Highway, Corruption Fuels Addiction
by David Trilling
20-something heroin addict relaxes in 2007 in a Dushanbe “drop-in
center” run by a local NGO to give users a clean, safe place to rest and
exchange needles. According to the UNODC, up to 30 percent of the opiates
produced in Afghanistan transit Central Asia annually, mostly via Tajikistan,
to lucrative markets in Russia and Europe. (Photo: David Trilling)
Sikandar why he switched from opium to heroin and his answer is concise: It was
easier to get.
who is 35 but looks 50, started using opium back in 1993, when he was 16 and
the country had descended into civil war. By the late 1990s, the sticky paste
was harder to find on the streets of Dushanbe, but refined heroin was
“everywhere,” including in the city’s prisons, where Sikandar has spent 14 of
the past 19 years on drug-possession charges and picked up HIV along the way.
drug users, and a number of Western analysts, say that police and prison guards
are deeply involved in Tajikistan’s local heroin trade, contributing to what
researchers say is an HIV epidemic. Police deny the charge. Some Tajik health
officials, meanwhile, disagree with experts who say that injecting drug use in
the country is on the rise, fueled by vast amounts of cheap heroin coming over
the porous 1,300-kilometer border with Afghanistan.
to estimates by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), over 90
percent of the world’s opiates are produced in Afghanistan and up to 30 percent
transit Central Asia annually, mostly via Tajikistan, to lucrative markets in
Russia and Europe. In 2009, that would have included roughly 90 metric tons of
heroin. Paradoxically, UNODC figures also show that the heroin seized in
Tajikistan fell by 58 percent between 2005 and 2010, as production in
Afghanistan rose, with the area under cultivation increasing by 18 percent.
European study says that corrupt officials in Tajikistan “directly facilitate
the distribution of drugs” both inside and outside prisons and have little
incentive to offer users medical support. “Law enforcement officials provide
(confiscated) heroin to favored dealers, arrest or harass competing dealers and
exploit drug users in various ways for the sake of information, money or sexual
favors,” says the 2011 report by Vilnius-based Eurasian Harm Reduction Network
(EHRN). Drug users who spoke with EurasiaNet.org in Dushanbe in recent weeks
confirmed the allegations, insisting the country’s penitentiaries are awash
with heroin controlled by prison officials and saying police control the street
trade as well.
Interior Ministry spokesman denied police involvement in narcotics dealing.
“There hasn’t been any of that. And it doesn’t happen in prisons either,” he
said April 5, noting one exception near the border earlier this year. Repeated
calls to the prison service went unanswered.
law-enforcement officials are involved in the drug trade, a number of
institutional factors may play a part. Police and prison personnel receive tiny
salaries and venality among public officials is widespread, with Tajikistan
ranked 152nd of 183 countries in Transparency International’s 2011 Corruption
Perceptions Index. Police must also meet arbitrary quotas for arrests, giving
them an incentive to lock up users while ensuring “that the activities of
larger criminal and drug trafficking organizations will go on unimpeded,” says
the EHRN report. Furthermore, under Tajik law, possession of more than half a
gram of heroin — about one or two doses, costing $4-$6 in Dushanbe — is
considered intent to sell. And the burden of proof lies with the suspect. As a
result, drug users report having to buy protection from police, or face jail.
Tajik officials and experts disagree about local drug-use trends. With growing
supply, prices are falling, encouraging a “definite increase” in the number of
addicts, says Pulat Jamolov, director of Spin Plus, an NGO that offers clean
needles and support to users in two safe houses in Dushanbe’s sprawling,
Soviet-built suburbs. Most researchers agree with Jamolov. But Khushbakht
Hasanov, director of the National Center for Drug Monitoring and Prevention at
the Ministry of Health, says overall drug use in Tajikistan has fallen since
2007. The official number of registered drug addicts in 2010 was about 7,400,
though the Red Cross estimates the actual number is between 60,000 and 100,000.
Jamolov and Hasanov agree, however, that drugs and dirty needles are creating a
surge of HIV infections in Tajikistan’s prisons. According to a report by
Hasanov’s office, after a round of HIV testing in 2010, the number of newly
registered cases in prisons more than doubled. Hasanov believes injecting drug
use accounts for almost 60 percent of all new HIV infections. The EHRN study
implies that many cases go unregistered, saying Tajikistan has an “HIV epidemic
in prisons … driven by the shared use of unsterile drug equipment.” Indeed,
Sikandar, who asked his last name not be printed for fear of reprisals, says he
may have contracted the virus in prison where, sometimes “a hundred of us would
use one needle.”
public health concern is that vast numbers of incarcerated users are not
getting the rehabilitation treatment to which they are legally entitled.
spent a year in jail in 2009-2010 for possessing half a gram of heroin, he
says. “As part of my sentence, I was supposed to get six months of treatment,
but they just locked me up,” he told EurasiaNet.org.
“A lot of
work is done to punish users as criminals, but not much is done to support
them,” said Jamolov of Spin Plus. “The authorities simply don’t believe in
helping people who use drugs; they think users are all the same as sellers.”
Tajik press reports of regular drug raids, one would think counter-narcotics
officials are making great progress in their war on drugs. Four kilos here, 10
kilos there—busts happen on a weekly basis. There may be lots of drug arrests,
but authorities are not arresting the right people because, according to
Western diplomats and aid officials, the major traffickers have high-level
donors have spent hundreds of millions of dollars on border security and
counter-narcotics programs in Tajikistan and adjacent areas of Afghanistan. But
the effort, said one senior Western official involved in the drug war, “is a
joke. The West has accepted that narcotics are the price for relative security
on Afghanistan’s northern border.” No one, he said, will risk destabilizing
Tajikistan by trying to take the drugs and the money – equivalent to 30 percent
of GDP, some estimate – out of the economy.
that mean for Sikandar? These days, the trick is being sure to “have enough
cash to pay off the police” when they harass him. His habit long ago consumed
concerns about more mundane details, like what has happened to his wife and
baby daughter. In the backstreets of Dushanbe’s crumbling 46th Microdistrict,
as he wonders where he’ll get cash for his next dose, he can take solace
knowing that the price of heroin continues to fall.
Trilling is EurasiaNet’s Central Asia editor.
Originally published by EurasiaNet.org http://www.eurasianet.org